Email magic link

An email magic link, also known as a magic signon link or passwordless sign-on link, is a convenient way to sign on to an online service, website, or application without entering a traditional username and password. Instead, it relies on a unique link that's sent to the user's email address, which acts as a one-time authentication token.

Use cases Benefits Challenges

Web applications

Reduced password fatigue

Email security concerns

Mobile apps

Lower support costs

User skepticism

Temporary or infrequent sign ons


Expired links and usability issues

Password recovery

Reduced risk of password breaches

Phishing risks

One-time passcodes (email and SMS)

A one-time passcode (OTP) is a passwordless authentication method used to provide a secure and convenient way for users to sign on to their accounts or access sensitive information without the need for traditional passwords. In passwordless authentication using OTP, users are authenticated with a code delivered to the email address or phone number (through SMS) that's registered with their account.

Use cases Benefits Challenges

Low-risk accounts

Improved security

Delivery reliability and security

Account recovery

No passwords to remember

Mobile number changes

Limited access

User trust and adoption

Phishing risks

Early stages of user Onboarding

Frictionless user Experience

Expired OTPs

FIDO2 (biometrics, passkeys, security keys)

FIDO 2 is an authentication standard developed by the FIDO Alliance that enables passwordless authentication using biometric data. FIDO2 is designed to enhance the security and user experience of online authentication by replacing traditional passwords with the following more secure and convenient methods:

FIDO2 biometrics
Incorporates biometric authentication techniques, such as fingerprint recognition, facial recognition, iris scanning, or voice recognition, to verify a user’s identity. Instead of relying on static passwords, FIDO2 biometrics relies on unique biological characteristics that are difficult to replicate, providing a higher level of security against various authentication threats.
FIDO2 passkeys
A type of authentication device used for passwordless authentication. Passkeys enable users the ability to sign on to their accounts by accessing their FIDO2 credentials on many of their devices that have been enrolled in multi-factor authentication (MFA). Passkeys reduce the risk of phishing, all forms of password theft (including password spraying brute force attacks), and credential stuffing attacks.
FIDO2 security keys
Physical hardware devices used for passwordless authentication based on the FIDO2 standard. These devices are designed to provide a highly secure way for users to authenticate to online services and applications.
Use cases Benefits Challenges

Online banking

Enhanced security

Biometric accuracy

Healthcare records

High phishing resistance

Potential for spoofing and presentation attacks

Government services

Multi-platform compatibility

Data privacy and regulations

E-commerce platforms

Privacy protection

User acceptance